An Overview on Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India

Published: 10th August 2010
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Off late India has become a major hub for having various Medical treatments done by global patients all across the world. The Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India is offered at hospitals which are at par with the latest technological advances, experienced and expert physicians and surgeons. During the procedures of various medical treatments or surgeries in India, the medical team maintains an excellent patient care for patients both national and international origin. Medical Tourism in India is flourishing and has secured her place in the world as a premier medical travel destination. India has one of the best qualified professionals in each and every field, and this fact has now been realized the world over. Regarding Medical Facilities, India has the most competent doctors and world class Medical Facilities which cater high end procedures like the Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India and other medical treatments.

What is Acute Mesenteric Ischemia?

Acute mesenteric ischemia is interruption of intestinal blood flow by embolism, thrombosis, or a low-flow state. It leads to mediator release, inflammation, and ultimately infarction. Abdominal pain is out of proportion to physical findings. Early diagnosis is difficult, but angiography and exploratory laparotomy have the most sensitivity; other imaging modalities often become positive only late in the disease. Treatment is by embolectomy, revascularization of viable segments, or resection; sometimes vasodilator therapy is successful. Mortality is high.

Symptoms of Acute mesenteric ischemia

The early symptom of Acute mesenteric ischemia is severe pain but minimal physical findings. The abdomen remains soft, with little or no tenderness. Mild tachycardia may be present. Later, as necrosis develops, signs of peritonitis appear, with marked abdominal tenderness, guarding, rigidity, and no bowel sounds. The stool may be heme-positive (increasingly likely as ischemia progresses). The usual signs of shock develop and are frequently followed by death.

Sudden onset of pain suggests but is not diagnostic of an arterial embolism, whereas a more gradual onset is typical of venous thrombosis. Patients with a history of postprandial abdominal discomfort (which suggests intestinal angina) may have arterial thrombosis.

Diagnosis of Acute mesenteric ischemia

 Clinical diagnosis more important than diagnostic tests

 Mesenteric angiography if diagnosis unclear

Early diagnosis of Acute mesenteric ischemia is particularly important because mortality increases significantly once intestinal infarction has occurred. Acute mesenteric ischemia must be considered in any patient > 50 with known risk factors or predisposing conditions who develops sudden, severe abdominal pain. Patients with clear peritoneal signs should proceed directly to the operating room for both diagnosis and treatment. For others, selective mesenteric angiography is the diagnostic procedure of choice. Other imaging studies and serum markers can demonstrate abnormalities but lack sensitivity and specificity early in the course of the disease when diagnosis is most critical. Plain abdominal x-rays are useful mainly in ruling out other causes of pain (eg, perforated viscus), although portal venous gas or pneumatosis intestinalis may be seen late in the disease. These findings also appear on CT, which may also directly visualize vascular occlusion-more accurately on the venous side. Doppler ultrasonography can sometimes identify arterial occlusion, but sensitivity is low. MRI is very accurate in proximal vascular occlusion, less so in distal vascular occlusion.

Prognosis of Acute mesenteric ischemia

If diagnosis and treatment of Acute mesenteric ischemia take place before infarction occurs, mortality is low; after intestinal infarction, mortality approaches 70 to 90%. For this reason, clinical diagnosis of mesenteric ischemia should supersede diagnostic tests, which may delay treatment.

Acute mesenteric ischemia Treatment procedures:

 Surgical: embolectomy, revascularization, or resection

 Angiographic: vasodilators or thrombolysis

 Long-term anticoagulation or antiplatelet therapy

If diagnosis Acute mesenteric ischemia is made during exploratory laparotomy, options are surgical embolectomy, revascularization, and resection. A "second look" laparotomy may be needed to reassess the viability of questionable areas of bowel. If diagnosis is made by angiography, infusion of the vasodilator papaverine through the angiography catheter may improve survival in both occlusive and non occlusive ischemia. A 60 mg bolus is given over 2 min, followed by an infusion of 30 to 60 mg/h. Papaverine is useful even when surgical intervention is planned and is sometimes given during and after surgical intervention as well. In addition, for arterial occlusion, thrombolysis or surgical embolectomy may be done. The development of peritoneal signs at any time during the evaluation suggests the need for immediate surgery. Mesenteric venous thrombosis without signs of peritonitis can be treated with papaverine

followed by anticoagulation with heparin and then warfarin

Why India?

The driving force behind the global patients opting Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India is the cost effectiveness and the almost minimal amount of wait lists. Apart from having the conventional medical treatments and surgeries like Cardiac surgeries or Knee replacement surgeries or Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India and so on. The traditional therapies like yoga, meditation, Ayurveda, Allopathy, and other traditional systems of medicines do attract medical tourists especially from European countries and the Middle East.

For further information on Acute Mesenteric Ischemia treatment in India visit us at or mail your queries at or call us at: +91-9371136499, +91- 9860755000 (International) / + 1-415-599-2537 (USA) / +44-20-8133-2571 (UK)

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